Visual Refractory Errors

Refractive errors are a group of disorders that impair vision because the cornea (a structure in the front of the eye) cannot focus light or images onto the back of the eye the right way. Refractive errors can occur at any age. Common refractive errors are Myopia, Hyperopia and Hyperopia. Myopia (“near-sightedness”) is when people who are near-sighted can see clearly up close, but things at a distance look blurry. Hyperopia (“far-sightedness”) is when people who are far-sighted can see clearly far away, but things up close look blurry. Astigmatism is when people with astigmatism see things as blurry at any distance.


Presbyopia is caused by loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye, and that happens as a normal part of aging. It changes the ability of the lens in the eye to focus. People with presbyopia have trouble focusing on things that are up close. They often have to hold things at arm’s length to see them well.